Saturday, March 21, 2020
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Helmuth von Moltke - Franco-Prussian War Field Marshal Born October 26, 1800, in Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Helmuth von Moltke was the son of an aristocratic German family. Moving to Holstein at age five, Moltkes family became impoverished during the War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-1807) when their properties were burned and plundered by French troops. Sent away to Hohenfelde as a boarder at age nine, Moltke entered the cadet school at Copenhagen two years later with the goal of entering the Danish army. Over the next seven years he received his military education and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1818. An Officer in Ascent After service with a Danish infantry regiment, Moltke returned to Germany and entered Prussian service. Posted to command a cadet school in Frankfurt an der Oder, he did so for a year before spending three conducting a military survey of Silesia and Posen. Recognized as a brilliant young officer, Moltke was assigned to the Prussian General Staff in 1832. Arriving in Berlin, he stood out from his Prussian contemporaries in that he possessed a love of the arts and music. A prolific writer and student of history, Moltke authored several works of fiction and in 1832, embarked on a German translation of Gibbons The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Promoted to captain in 1835, he took six months leave to travel through southeastern Europe. While in Constantinople, he was asked by Sultan Mahmud II to aid in modernizing the Ottoman army. Receiving permission from Berlin, he spent two years in this role before accompanying the army on campaign against Muhammad Ali of Egypt. Taking part in the 1839 Battle of Nizib, Moltke was forced to escape after Alis victory. Returning to Berlin, he published an account of his travels and in 1840, married his sisters English stepdaughter, Mary Burt. Assigned to the staff of the 4th Army Corps in Berlin, Moltke became fascinated with railroads and began an extensive study of their use. Continuing to write on historical and military topics, he returned to the General Staff before being named Chief of Staff for the 4th Army Corps in 1848. Remaining in this role for seven years, he advanced to the rank of colonel. Transferred in 1855, Moltke became the personal aide to Prince Frederick (later Emperor Frederick III). Leader of the General Staff In recognition of his military skills, Moltke was promoted to Chief of the General Staff in 1857. A disciple of Clausewitz, Moltke believed that strategy was essentially the quest of seeking the military means to a desired end. Though a detailed planner, he understood and frequently stated that no battle plan survives contact with the enemy. As a result, he sought to maximize his chances of success by remaining flexible and ensuring that the transportation and logistical networks were in place to allow him to bring decisive force to the key points on the battlefield. Taking office, Moltke immediately began making sweeping changes in the armys approach to tactics, strategy, and mobilization. In addition, work began to improve communications, training, and armaments. As a historian, he also implemented a study of European politics to identify Prussias future enemies and to begin developing war plans for campaigns against them. In 1859, he mobilized the army for the Austro-Sardinian War. Though Prussia did not enter the conflict, the mobilization was used by Prince Wilhelm as a learning exercise and the army was expanded and reorganized around the lessons obtained. In 1862, with Prussia and Denmark arguing over the ownership of Schleswig-Holstein, Moltke was asked for a plan in case of war. Concerned that the Danes would be difficult to defeat if allowed to retreat to their island strongholds, he devised a plan which called for Prussian troops to flank them in order to prevent a withdrawal. When hostilities commenced in February 1864, his plan was bungled and the Danes escaped. Dispatched to the front on April 30, Moltke succeeded in bringing the war to a successful conclusion. The victory solidified his influence with King Wilhelm. As the king and his prime minister, Otto von Bismarck, began attempts to unite Germany, it was Moltke who conceived the plans and directed the army to victory. Having gained considerable clout for his success against Denmark, Moltkes plans were followed precisely when war with Austria began in 1866. Though outnumbered by Austria and its allies, the Prussian Army was able to make near-perfect use of railroads to ensure that maximum force was delivered at the key moment. In a lightning seven-week war, Moltkes troops were able conduct a brilliant campaign which culminated with a stunning victory at KÃ ¶niggrtz. His reputation further enhanced, Moltke oversaw the writing of a history of the conflict which was published in 1867. In 1870, tensions with France dictated the mobilization of the army on July 5. As the preeminent Prussian general, Moltke was named Chief of Staff of the Army for the duration of the conflict. This position essentially allowed him to issue orders in the name of the king. Having spent years planning for war with France, Moltke assembled his forces south of Mainz. Dividing his men into three armies, he sought to drive into France with the goal defeating the French army and marching on Paris. For the advance, several plans were developed for use depending upon where the main French army was found. In all circumstances, the ultimate goal was for his troops to wheel right to drive the French north and cut them off from Paris. Attacking, the Prussian and German troops met with great success and followed the basic outline of his plans. The campaign came to stunning climax with the victory at Sedan on September 1, which saw Emperor Napoleon III and most of his army captured. Pressing on, Moltkes forces invested Paris which surrendered after a five-month siege. The fall of the capital effectively ended the war and led to the unification of Germany. Later Career Having been made a Graf (count) in October 1870, Moltke was permanently promoted to field marshal in June 1871, in reward for his services. Entering the Reichstag (German Parliament) in 1871, he remained Chief of Staff until 1888. Stepping down, he was replaced by Graf Alfred von Waldersee. Remaining in the Reichstag, he died at Berlin on April 24, 1891. As his nephew, Helmuth J. von Moltke led German forces during the opening months of World War I, he is often referred to as Helmuth von Moltke the Elder. Selected Sources Helmuth von Moltke: On the Nature of WarMakers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, edited by Peter Paret with the collaboration of Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1986.Franco-Prussian War
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Globalization - Essay Example As a result of the hard hitting Washington Consensus [Ã¢â¬âthe WestÃ¢â¬â¢s interest-serving set of socio-economic and political prescriptions, for instance], it is quite obvious that the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s poor have surrendered a huge chunk of their sovereignty to the powerful global forces, which apparently, are at constantly at work circumscribing their spheres of action (Dreher 1092). The resurgence of Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s laissez faire economics is today more of a reality than it was then; seldom since the nineteenth centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s heydays of free trade has this theory galvanized such certainty; certainty that has also been far removed from the realities on the ground. Quite frankly, all [scholars] are entitled to personal opinions, for globalization is but a multifaceted concept that encapsulates changing fortunes [both for the rich and the poor], but with a convincing conviction that deregulated markets and the accompanying elements creates super-humans who earn their lifesty les even by the most despicable moves that includes but not limited to taking the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s poor six feet under. ... nd than going global is but a better way of encouraging higher standards; that apart from the increased overall quality of goods and services due to the increased competition, the development of information technologies has enabled crucial knowledge enhancing exchanges between nations, the poorest included. More importantly, it has availed the hitherto unavailable access to foreign capital in addition to advanced technology and subsequent export markets, thus breaking the jinx of the old, domestic monopoly production approaches riddled with wasteful inefficiencies (Osland 137-138). Martens and Raza notes that globalization has added a great deal of impetus to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth, without which the population of the worldsÃ¢â¬â¢ poor would be much greater, and in even much deplorable circumstances without the advances that has secured a stream of food supply for the world poor that know less of family planning even at their states of affairs (281). It is, however, unf ortunate that while globalization is credited for the significant improvements above across the globe, the global nature tendencies of the same forces have destroyed lives in equal measure, perhaps even worse than the benefits. A carefully designed process whose control is a tightly knit affair in the hands of the transnational corporations (TNCs) suspended by the governments of wealthy industrialized nations, the interests of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s poor seems to have been relegated to the periphery. With capitalist mindsets driving the disproportionate allocation of resources globally, capital movement, exchange, revenue, structural adjustment and interest seem to be the trending terms, yet sinking the disadvantaged by taking away even the very little in their custody. Indeed, it is; for never in history has
Monday, February 3, 2020
Implementation, Strategic Controls, and Contingency Plans - Essay Example ntiation generic strategy with the market development grand strategy that would be instrumental in increasing the market share and financial income by as much as 20% per annum for the 3rd year and too increase further to 30% from the 4th to 5th years. Implementation of Differentiation Generic Strategy: (1) Caribou should enhance visibility with the positive attributes at the core of their mission and vision statements (Bockstedt & Goh, 2012, p. 237) by increasing advertisements and promotional efforts; (2) Caribou should build customer loyalty through differentiating the Caribou brand from other specialty coffee brands in terms of focusing on the quality advantage; (3) Caribou should not only focus on satisfying customers; but more so, on delighting them and providing them with exemplary personalized experience as they purchase the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products. approximately 7 new stores per annum for the 3rd to 4th years and to increase to 10 stores per annum starting on the 5th year; (2) Caribou is renovating the current store within the Chicago market; (3) it will reintroduce a unique brand to the residents that has a customized Chicago-centric look and taste; (4) Caribou should expand beyond United States and would start operation in the Middle East, Colombia, and some parts of Europe starting from the 3rd year to the 5th year time period. From among the noted activities for the strategies identified, the following are emphasized: (1) development of a franchising pipeline in the non-traditional locations like airports, offices, and hospitals within United States; (2) opening of new stores within strategic locations in the U.S.; (3) renovation of the Chicago store; (4) expansion to international markets. The milestones include: (1) the expansion which would mark the company first-owned store for the past five years; (2) expanding into international markets; and (3) renovating the current store in the Chicago market. Current and future resources would be primarily
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Environmental Ethics Pollution And Degradation Of The Environment Philosophy Essay The world has evolved so much since its existence until now. Science and technology have taken charge over the way we live our lives. Industries, mining, agriculture are among the daily activities of people nowadays. The anthropogenic activities have brought problems to the earth. One of the problems that have raised the concern of all mankind is pollution. Pollution is happening in terms of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution. Basically it involves components of the earth, living and non-living things. What is our ethical views regarding the issue of pollution to the earth? The awareness against the environment had risen since long ago especially since the publication of Rachel Carsons Silent Spring in 1962. Silent Spring tells us about the bad effect pesticides bring to the environment. Besides that, the disastrous event that took place around the globe such as in Chernobyl, Bhopal India and the oil spill by Exxon Valdez had open the eyes of society that the environment needs our attention and that these events should not be happening again. In the Exxon Valdez oil spill episode, many wild life and aquatic organisms had been killed. It was one of the biggest pollution disasters ever. Then, emerge the sustainable development concept that has been a new way of living. The activities that we do should be sustainable for the future generation to have access to the same sources like we do. We should take care of the environment and not to pollute the environment for it to be safe for people to live in. Pollution results in degradation of the environment and quality of life. It involves the whole component of the environment or described by Aldo Leopold the biotic community. In Aldo Leopold Land Ethics, the act is considered right if it serves to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community (Leopold 1949). Therefore, it is ethically wrong for people to pollute the natural environment. In the next section, we will look into the reason on why we cannot pollute the environment in the ethical point of view and further arguments on the pollution matters. INTERDEPENDENCY OF THE ECOSYSTEM The first argument that we should not and cannot pollute the environment because of the relationship we have with the ecosystem, namely the animals, plants and other non-living things such as water, soil and air. I believe that every component serves a purpose in the ecosystem. The interference of anthropogenic activities such as pollution will only affect the chain of the natural process and eventually will affect the equilibrium state of the natural environment. Every organisms in the environment is view as an ecocentric creature where each of us are interrelated with each other. Humans, animals and plants are the living system in the environment. We are all teleological creatures. We have our own purpose even for the organisms that are not aware of its purpose and we will find means to achieve those purposes. Living things need the appropriate conditions and habitat to live and breed. The earth has a place for all of these creatures. The earth is designed to complement the needs and necessity of the living components. Humans basically are the steward of the earth because of our ability to administer and control other components. However, we should not treat the earth in a utilitarian kind of way. We do have goals and pleasures that we want to achieve, but at the same time we do have duties and responsibilities for others. Degradation of the environment and pollution are the results of our own actions. Industrialization, food production, overpopulation and lack of education are among the reasons for these problems to happen. Clean water supply is being polluted with industrial waste, the atmosphere is being emitted with the Green House Gas and the soil is being contaminated with chemical pollutants. These will eventually interfere with the natural ecosystem. If the equilibrium state of the natural environment is being interfered, then will come the disastrous events that will cause harm to human population. Nowadays, we tend to look so much into the economic incentives of the physical world where we tend to exploit the natural resources and overused the resources. These what leads to environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources. Fossil fuels are being overexploited, deforestation are happening every second and development are being carried out massively. The result, extinction of wildlife species, natural disaster happens all time and loss of habitat for species. What we can do is to opt for sustainable development. We should be considerate to other living components in the ecosystem as well. We should conserve and preserve the natural resources not only for our purpose but also for the benefit of the ecosystem. The relationship between humans and the ecosystem is a tight one. We are interdependent on each other. We cannot live in the world by ourselves, we need the air to breath, water to drink, plants and animals to be able to live. Therefore, we need to take care of the environment to achieve a level that would sustain an equilibrium state of ecosystem. INTRINSIC VALUES AND RESPECT FOR NATURE The second argument in stating that pollution is ethically wrong is that every component in the environment has their intrinsic values, meaning that every living environment has their good of its own. Therefore, we should respect the existence of each creature and not to take away their rights for a live. The event of the oil spill of the Exxon Valdez in 1989 at the Prince William Sound, Alaska had taken away lives of aquatic and wildlife species. These happen because of humans actions. Pollution not only degrades the environment, it kills lives. The organisms that are not adaptable to the changing environment will die. The dying organisms will affect the food chain and ecosystem cycle and soon the threatened species will die if no further action is taken to curb the problems. Humans should respect the existence of other living components in the environment. The lack of respect towards the environment what motivates us to continue to pollute and degrade the environment. We naturally have the aesthetic feelings towards our surroundings and appreciative gestures for other creatures. The way we treat animals and plants will eventually reflect our character as a human being as well. The act of pollution shows that we have no respect to the environment. Where is our moral conscience and awareness in dealing with the environment? The polluter-pay principle that has been adopted mainly allows companies to pollute and pay the compensation accordingly. It is very utilitarian in approach and does not justify the actions. It shows that economic outcomes are rather important than the natural environment. The cost and benefit analysis also focus more on the economic outcomes rather than preserving the natural environment. Pollution is a continuous process and infectious. Once it happens, the remedial will take forever and cost a lot, not only in terms of monetary but also the lives of the components in the ecosystem which are affected. It is undeniable that human population is expanding and lots of things need to be done to maintain the needs of the growing population such as food supply, infrastructure and basic needs. Therefore, we should find a way to develop in an unconventional method such as adopting the Green technology and not to view the natural resources as means to achieve our needs and wants. FUTURE GENERATIONS The third argument is that we should not pollute the earth for future generation to have the same access to the environment that we have today. If pollution and the environmental degradation continue to happen, the earth might not be as the status quo. Even natural processes cannot undo the damage we done to the environment. Future generations are the people in the future. We do not know who they are and even their existence are not certain. Their existence mainly lies in our decisions, because they are our inheritance. But why do we care? We care because as humans we have the feeling of care and love. We want our child and love ones to have the best. Therefore, we tend to care for the future generation because we want them to have the same environment as we do. We do not want them to live in a polluted environment where there is no access of clean water, no more fresh air and no more forest and wildlife. We want them to enjoy the same natural resources as we do now. From the deontological point of approach, we as humans have our duties and obligations towards the environment. Therefore, we have the responsibilities for the future generation. We have duties to preserve and conserve the environment for them to live with. If we continue to let pollution happens at an alarming rate like today, the earth wont be able to sustain. We need to carry out our duties and start to mitigate the pollution and find ways for better solution in providing the best interest for all living components in the environment. Science and technology is growing in a fast rate. The emerging technology and scientific findings should not jeopardize the environmental conditions. With the more discoveries in genetic engineering and cloning, the path of these scientific findings should still respect the natural evolution of species and not change the natural process of the ecosystem. STEWARD OF THE ENVIRONMENT Humans are no superior creature of the earth. It is just that we have the ability to create a platform of common understanding between us and the ability to turn our thinking into words and action. We are the steward of the environment. It is our duty to take care of the environment at the best condition possible. Problems will occur if we tend not to care of the environment. The problems basically came from humans. Overpopulation, poverty, war, lack of education, health care, and hygiene, waste dumps, global warming, climate change and in this context pollution are among the problems the world face today. These problems involve the whole of the biotic community. As stated by Aldo Leopold (1949) in his famous view of Land Ethics, a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise. CONCLUSION Humans are part of the ecosystem. We are interrelated with each other and every component has their own purpose in the environment. Too much anthropogenic activities have lead to a global problem of pollution. It is an issue that needs further attention. We are part of the environment and we should respect the other components in the chain of the ecosystem. We are interrelated with each other and our existence complement each other on earth. Every living thing has their own intrinsic values. We have no right to overrule their rights for a live and should respect their needs for a condusive environment and habitat to live and breed. Besides that, we have the responsibilities to the future generations. We want them to have the same access of the environment as we do. We want them to breathe in the same quality of air and the same access to clean water supply and to have the same natural resources like we do. Therefore we should not pollute the environment for it to maintain as the status quo. Humans are the steward of the environment because we can think, speak and act accordingly. We can develop a platform of common understanding among us and develop organizations. Therefore, we have the responsibility to take care of the earth and prevent any more pollution from happening than what is happening now. Humans, animals and plants need a condusive environment for us to live and breathe. The earth is designed for us to have all the access to the needs that are required for us to live. Therefore, we should not jeopardize all these just in the name of economic incentives.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
AngloGold Ashanti An Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Essay 1 By: S. BLIDI ELLIOTT Index No. : EMBA 10110042 Course: Ethics, Social Responsibility and Governance Course No. : EMBA 663 Lecturer: Dr. Judy N. Muthuri Date: September 28, 2012 Word Count: 5,709 This essay is the first of a two-part series critically examining the corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy and performance of AngloGold Ashanti (AGA). This first essay analyses the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR strategy and activities against the yard sticks provided by the Ghana Business Code and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI).In analyzing AGAÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy, we explore the likely motivating factors driving the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR activities and how these drivers inform AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s responsiveness to environmental, social and other stakeholder issues. In evaluating AGAÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR reporting and performance, we present a background of the company followed by an overview of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR strategy and analysis of whether that strategy conforms to accepted standards.This essay is written in partial fulfillment of the course requirements of the Ethics, Social Responsibility and Governance module (EMBA 663) of the Executive Masters in Business Administration program of the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration. ANGLOGOLD ASHANTI Ã¢â¬â AN OVERVIEW AngloGold Ashanti is a multinational corporation headquartered in South Africa with various mining operations in ten countries spread across Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s primary activity is gold mining, though silver and uranium, among other by products, are produced in the process of extracting the gold from the ore bodies.In 2011, AngloGold reported sales of $6. 6 billion from 4. 33 million ounces of gold produced with a workforce of close to 70,000 persons across four continents. AGA is a truly global company with market capitalization of $16. 2 billion and listings on stock exchanges in A ngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 2 Johannesburg, Accra, London, Sidney and New York. The company is majority owned by shareholders in the USA (47. 9%) and South Africa (27. 9%), with the rest of the shares distributed throughout the world, including a 1. % shareholding by the Government of Ghana (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011: 5-10). AngloGold produces dore (unrefined gold bars) at its worldwide operations for sale mainly to gold refineries which sell on to bullion banks and jewelers. Like others in the industry, AGA has benefitted from recent increasing demand for gold as a store of value. This demand has been driven over the last few years by the worldwide economic downturn and banking crisis which have made investors wary of unstable currency and equity markets.This essay focuses on AGAÃ¢â¬â¢s operations in Ghana, where the company operates two mining properties in the west of the country at Iduapriem and Obuasi. These operations account for 11. 8 % of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s global production and revenues (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011: 22) Located in the Ashanti and Western Regions of Ghana, Iduapriem and Obuasi were the main targets of the merger between AngloGold Limited of South Africa and Ashanti Goldfields Limited of Ghana to form the current company, AngloGold Ashanti, in 2004.SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGY AngloGold Ashanti provides extensive, publicly available information about what the company calls its Ã¢â¬Å"sustainabilityÃ¢â¬ strategy and programs. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Sustainability Report 2011 Ã¢â¬â Sustainable GoldÃ¢â¬ (www. aga-reports. com/11/sustainability-report/home) is one part of AGAÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Integrated Report 2011 Ã¢â¬â Pure GoldÃ¢â¬ which also includes the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Annual Financial Statements and a Mineral Resources and Ore Reserve Report. The company says its Integrated Report is in compliance with South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s King Code on Corporate AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 3Governance 2009 (http://african. ipapercms. dk/IOD/KINGIII/kingiiicode/) which mandates companies operating in South Africa to issue a triple bottom line report on financial and sustainability performance. The King III Code further encourages companies to tailor their sustainability reports according to the Global Reporting InitiativeÃ¢â¬â¢s (GRI) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (www. globalreporting. org/reporting/latest-guidelines/g3-guidelines).AngloGold Ashanti appears to have gone to great lengths to remain compliant with the intent of King III Code by presenting sustainability and financial data as an integral part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s governance and business strategy with strong emphasis on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s responsiveness to stakeholder issues. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s compliant posture is also evident in its reported reliance on the GRI Guidelines, the principles of the UN Global Compact (http://www. unglobalcompact. org/), and t he Sustainable Development Framework of the industry body, the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) http://www. icmm. com/our-work/sustainable-development-framework). While AGA does not specifically mention the Ghana Business Code, acceptance of the principles of the UN Global Compact amounts to acceptance of the Ghana Code which is nearly a verbatim rendition of the Global Compact. AngloGold Ashanti in its Sustainability Report 2011 expresses a mission to: To create value for our shareholders, our employees and our business and social partners through safely and responsibly exploring, mining and marketing our products.Our primary focus is gold and we will pursue value creating opportunities in other minerals where we can leverage our existing assets, skills and experience to enhance the delivery of value. This mission statement gives early insight that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR strategy is largely driven by an instrumental motivation (Maignan & Ralston, 2002: 498) to ac hieve performance objectives Ã¢â¬â creating value. A reading of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values statement enhances this impression of a firm focused on CSR as a means to achieve strategic business objectives. AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 4AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s stated values are closely aligned with the 10 principles of the Ghana Business Code (Ghana Business Code, 2006). The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s first value statement Ã¢â¬Å"Safety is our first valueÃ¢â¬ 1 speaks of health and safety at the workplace in alignment with the principles on human rights and labour standards of the Ghana Business Code and the UN Global Compact. The second value statement Ã¢â¬Å"We treat each other with dignity and respectÃ¢â¬ deals with honesty and ethical business and social practices and is aligned with the human rights, labour and anti-corruption principles of the Ghana Code.AngloGold declares its intent to respect the Global Compact (and by extension the Ghana Code) in its o ther statements concerning the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value for diversity and its respect for the environment. Two of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value statements are particularly noteworthy as they speak directly to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainability strategy. In value statement 4, the company declares Ã¢â¬Å"We are accountable for our actions and undertake to deliver on our commitmentsÃ¢â¬ . This statement goes to the core of what some writers (eg.Crane, Matten & Spence, 2008:5) see to be an essence of corporate social responsibility Ã¢â¬â companies being accountable for negative impacts of their actions and taking the appropriate corrective and, in the best case, preventive measures. AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s value statement 5 Ã¢â¬Å"The communities and societies in which we operate will be better off for AngloGold Ashanti having been thereÃ¢â¬ is a powerful statement of commitment by the company to go beyond the scope of its legal and economic responsibilities into the higher realms of Ã¢â ¬Å"CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s Pyramid of CSRÃ¢â¬ (Branco & Rodrigues, 2007:10). See Appendix for full text of AngloGold AshantiÃ¢â¬â¢s Mission, Vision and Values Statements AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 5 AngloGold AshantiÃ¢â¬â¢s Sustainability Report 2011 is a centralized, group level report, but its supplementary sustainability data and country reports provide a localized perspective of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR performance, with particular reference to its performance in Ghana.ANGLOGOLD ASHANTI CSR REPORTING AND THE GRI The Global Reporting Initiative was established in 1997 with a mission to provide a common framework for CSR reporting based on globally accepted principles, concepts and metrics (Hedberg & Malmborg, 2003: 155). The Guidelines give firms a template for the content and presentation of their CSR reports to enable comparison with other such reports. The Guidelines are divided into two parts covering the reporting principles and guidance and the standard disclosures (https://www. globalreporting. org/resourcelibrary/G3-Guidelines-InclTechnical-Protocol. df). Part 1 of the Guidelines give guidance to firms on how to determine the content of reports based on principles of materiality, stakeholder inclusiveness, sustainability context and completeness. This Part also intends to help firms maintain the quality of their reports with regard to accuracy, timeliness, reliability and clarity. The overall objective is for reports to not only present the issues affecting individual firms, but how the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ social, economic and environmental performance contributes to sustainable development at the global level.Part 2 of the guidelines covers standard disclosures expected of companies in terms of their strategy and profile, approach of management to CSR issues and a common set of performance indicators. Disclosures on strategy are intended to establish the link between the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s business strategy and its governa nce and sustainability performance. AngloGold Ashanti appears to have embraced the GRI Guidelines in an effort to communicate its adherence to widely accepted CSR principles and processes. Hedberg andAngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 6 Malmborg (2003: 153) have suggested that a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the GRI Guidelines is often motivated by the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s need to Ã¢â¬Å"seek organizational legitimacyÃ¢â¬ by using a globally respected template that would lend credibility to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reports. AngloGold gives itself an A+ rating for adherence to the GRI Guidelines, meaning the company believes that its sustainability report includes reporting on all indicators of relevance to the GRI.In closely examining the AGA report for 2011, it is clear that AngloGold has closely followed the guidelines on what content to include and how to include it in keeping with the Standard Disclosures of the GRI. The first section of the Standard Disclosures calls for presentation of a high level analysis of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s Sustainability Report 2011 adheres to this guideline through a statement from AngloGold CEO Mark Cutifani (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011:12) outlining the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and how this vision links with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business strategy and sustainability performance.He outlines key focus areas for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy, including health and safety for employees and business stakeholders, minimizing the environmental impact of operations, protection of human rights, maintaining efficiency in production, controlling costs, maximizing returns and Ã¢â¬Å"delivering valueÃ¢â¬ to community stakeholders. AGA believes these strategic focus areas are consistent with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of sustainable development because they cover the social, economic and environmental issues of most concern to the company and its stakeholders (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011: 13).Stakeholder pressure from a negative duty perspective (Maignan & Ralston, 2002:498) is evident when the CEO reports that Ã¢â¬Å"to our key stakeholders it appears we may have taken our local communities and the various levels of government for grantedÃ¢â¬ (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011:13). This pressure from local communities, particularly communities around the AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 7 ompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations at Obuasi and Iduapriem in Ghana, has pushed AGA to declare that its CSR strategy is centered on the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"rebuilding trust with local communities, regulatory authorities and government leadersÃ¢â¬ (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011:13) through an approach of creating mutually beneficial value for the company and the communities in which it operates. In line with the GRI Standard Disclosures, the CEO statement affirms engagement with a wide range of stakeholders including the Extractive Industries Transparency I nitiative (EITI) and the United Nations Global Compact in developing its CSR strategy and performance.AngloGold further identifies the key risks and impacts on sustainability and the effects on stakeholders that would affect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s long term performance. Among risks and sustainability trends of concern to the company is the issue of Ã¢â¬Ëresource nationalismÃ¢â¬â¢ which AngloGold describes as the tendency for governments to demand more returns from companies involved in extractive industries (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011:13). This resource nationalism is expressed through mining code revisions, increased royalty ayments and taxes, and increased demand for companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ direct contribution to development initiatives. A related risk, from AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, is the issue of increased community activism around land use and availability of water. The company commits itself, in its 2011 report, to improve its performance in the areas of water and land use, waste disposal and environmental management. In conformity with the GRI, these commitments are expressed as performance targets which the company considers to be essential for its long term survival.AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainability report provides extensive information profiling the company in keeping with section two of the GRI Standard Disclosures. The profile includes key information on shareholders, production levels, net sales, number of employees, AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 8 capitalization, and breakdown of all indicators by region and country operations, among other performance indicators. The company, in conformity with EITI, reports all payments to the Government of Ghana and local administrations (http://www. aga- reports. om/11/pdf/ghana. pdf). GRI guidelines provide specific environmental indicators required to be reported on by firms. AngloGold provides detailed data on reportable environmental incidents, energy efficiency, wa ter use efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and cyanide certification (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011: 6-7). The issue of water is of critical concern at AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ghana operations, because of what the company describes as GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s high levels of rainfall and water run-off which make implementation of Ã¢â¬Ëclosed loopÃ¢â¬â¢ systems for recycling water unfeasible.Gold mining operations require huge quantities of water which brings these operations into competition with community agricultural programs for this often scarce resource. AngloGold admits that mismanagement of water supply and quality can have severe impacts on gold production as well as on the health of mining communities. In its Ghana Fact Sheet, the company says Ã¢â¬Å"water quality and usage are of concern globally, but are particularly significant for operations in Ghana, where there is significant potential environmental and social impact and a high level of stakeholder scrutinyÃ¢â¬ (http://www . ga-reports. com/11/pdf/ghana. pdf). The company agrees, in its 2011 report, that its suboptimal management of water in Ghana has led to disputes with local communities, and that greater efforts are being put into place to address these shortcomings through what AGA calls its Global Strategy for Water Security. The GRI guidelines also encourage companies to report on a range of social performance indicators regarding labour practices, human rights and other societal concerns.The guidelines make reference to several internationally recognized standards and protocols, AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 9 particularly the International Labour Organization (ILO) Tripartite Declaration Concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the United Nations Conventions on Civil, Human, Politi cal, Social and Cultural Rights.AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s close adherence to the GRI Guidelines may be laudable, but leaves questions as to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s motivations. Hedberg & Malmborg in their work on the use of the GRI guidelines among companies in Sweden, suggest that companies are motivated to use the guidelines to Ã¢â¬Å"provide a good and established structure for their reportsÃ¢â¬ (2003:159) in order to seek societal legitimacy, and that a main reason the guidelines are used is to get a proper design for their reports.Because the Guidelines give firms leeway to choose the level and depth of their reporting, and that little if any verification of reports is done by GRI, Hedberg and Malmborg suggest the Guidelines may lack a certain credibility which may negatively impact the company in the long term (2003: 163). Given the above perception of the credibility challenges of the GRI Guidelines, AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR strategy needs to be subjected to closer scrutiny, beginning with an analysis of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders and the stakeholder issues that drive AGAÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR strategy and activities.STAKEHOLDERS Branco and Rodrigues in their paper on stakeholder theory and CSR remark that stakeholder theory is Ã¢â¬Å"inescapable if one wants to discuss and analyze CSRÃ¢â¬ (2007: 5). Maignan & Ralston, in discussing CSR motivations, speak of a negative duty approach by which companies engage in CSR activities because of legitimacy issues and stakeholder pressure (2002: 498). Woods (1991:703-705) in her corporate social performance model, emphasizes AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 10 he vital role of stakeholder management in a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s processes of social responsiveness. Stakeholder theory makes the case that CSR performance is driven by a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s need to respond to and satisfy the interests of its stakeholders. Branco and Rodrigues point further to the tendency of firms to pay greater attention to thei r primary stakeholders as opposed to the issues of secondary stakeholders who are not necessarily Ã¢â¬Å"essential for a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s survivalÃ¢â¬ (2007:7).As a multinational company operating labor-intensive operations on four continents, and with listings on multiple stock exchanges, AngloGold Ashanti must tread carefully in order to be responsive to conflicting stakeholder issues while maintaining its focus on its fiduciary responsibility to primary stakeholders, particularly the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s shareholders. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholder management strategy appears to be based on what the company describes as the Ã¢â¬Å"risks and driversÃ¢â¬ that allow its operations to be successful and create mutual value for its shareholders and communities.The company says its stakeholder engagement policy intends to assure that its operations continue to meet performance targets while generating returns for its shareholders and community stakeholders. This approach speaks directl y to the Ã¢â¬Å"instrumentalÃ¢â¬ dimension of CSR as explained by Maignan & Ralston (2002:498). An instrumental approach from a negative duty perspective implies that AngloGold pursues stakeholder engagement, and indeed its entire CSR strategy, because it is compelled to do so by stakeholder expectations and pressure, and not out of any altruistic principles.This explains the strong motivation for the company to manage stakeholders to avoid negative impacts and risks to its operations that would be detrimental to its financial performance. This is an approach that can be observed in all aspects of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stated CSR strategy, which may prompt cynics, as Ghillyer notes, to Ã¢â¬Å"see these initiatives as public AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 11 elations exercises with no real evidence of dramatic changes in the core operating philosophiesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (2008:62). AngloGold Chairman Tito Mboweni, in a sustainability statement in the comp anyÃ¢â¬â¢s Integrated Report (2011:8) says Ã¢â¬Å"being a good corporate citizen, as we seek to be, is a prerequisite for being a successful minerÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"governments and their citizens are entitled to expect not only a fair fiscal return but also a mutually respectful and beneficial relationship between them and the companiesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ .He however goes on to caution that Ã¢â¬Å"pushed too far, though, raised taxes and royalty rates will begin to discourage investment and reduce the overall value of the industry to both societies and shareholders. The regulatory environment is becoming increasingly complex and onerous. Ã¢â¬ The influence of stakeholders can be observed in the key issues driving AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR strategy and emphasized in its Sustainability Report 2011. One such issue is what the company calls the trend toward greater Ã¢â¬Å"resource nationalismÃ¢â¬ among its stakeholder governments in the jurisdictions in which the company operates.Th e risk of resource nationalism impacts the company in terms of the increased community pressure on AngloGold to make explicit the benefits of its mining activities for communities and national economies, the increased community activism about access to and fair value received for scarce natural resources, and increased demand for higher tax and royalty payments to governments. AngloGold reports that it is responding to this stakeholder issue by developing a general framework to approach development in a more organized and systematic way.The company reports that it has increased its community investments in partnership with communities and local government administrations in an effort to demonstrate the benefits of what the company calls Ã¢â¬Å"responsible miningÃ¢â¬ . These measures can be seen as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to secure and maintain its legitimacy and social license to operate. AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 12 Artisanal and small-sc ale mining is another issue that has driven AGAÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate social response. This issue has particular resonance in Ghana where AGA mines properties which have for a great many years been mined by community members.The conflicts that have resulted from small-scale mining encroachments on AngloGold concession areas have led to charges of human rights violations against the company. These violations have included allegations of deaths resulting from AngloGold security interventions in Ã¢â¬Å"illegalÃ¢â¬ mining activities on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s concession area. In response to this stakeholder issue, AngloGold reports that it has become involved with initiatives in Ghana and at other operations to Ã¢â¬Å"formalize artisanal and small-scale mining in a way which will benefit local economies and create sustainable livelihoodsÃ¢â¬ (AGA Sustainability Report 2011:16).The company says it is also cooperating with host governments to address the economic causes of illegal mining, and with international and industry organizations to develop common approaches. Of concern to AngloGold is the Dodd-Frank Act of the United States which requires the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to establish rules requiring certain companies to disclose their involvement with conflict minerals, particularly from the Democratic Republic of Congo where AngloGold maintains gold mining operations http://www. sec. gov/news/press/2012/2012-163. htm). The activities of illegal miners near AGA operations has the potential, the company believes, to taint the gold legally mined by AGA, especially in light of the global trend among consumers for Ã¢â¬Å"responsible goldÃ¢â¬ (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011:19) that does not contribute to conflict and human rights violations. AGAÃ¢â¬â¢s listing on the New York Stock Exchange makes it accountable to conform to the SECÃ¢â¬â¢s rulings. AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & PerformancePage 13 Health and safety is anoth er multi-stakeholder issue emphasized by AngloGold in its 2011 report. The company reports that Ã¢â¬Å"safety and health are not only business imperatives, but are part of our obligation to operate with respect for human rightsÃ¢â¬ . The health and safety of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees and the communities in which it operates is a pressing issue for nongovernmental organizations (NGO), governments and multilateral institutions interested in protecting the rights and preventing the exploitation of workers.AngloGold says it respects and values the ten principles of the UN Global Compact and the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights (VPSHR) in the development of a Ã¢â¬Å"safety transformation frameworkÃ¢â¬ to address its less than adequate health and safety performance. The company lists safety as its first value and has set firm targets for reducing work related accident, injury and health frequency rates by 2015 (AGA Sustainability Report, 2011:11).The companyÃ¢â ¬â¢s malaria control program at Obuasi, Ghana, has received commendation from GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s malaria control program and a $138 million grant from the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria to enable the company step up intervention across Ghana. GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s Daily Graphic newspaper reported in September 2012 (http://www. ghana. gov. gh/index. php/news/features/16095-anglogold-malaria-control-projectbenefits-40-districts) that AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s malaria program was set to benefit 40 communities in the Upper West, Upper East, Northern, Central and Ashanti regions of the country.Environmental and natural resource management is a prominent part of AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR reporting in response to stakeholder interest, especially in Ghana where the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s contamination of community water resources has been a contentious issue for many years. The company has accepted its liability for polluting the rivers around its Obuasi and Iduapriem operations in Ghana. The dr astic situation resulted in the suspension of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations by the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency in 2007. The companyAngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 14 claims these environmental issues are legacy problems which are being addressed through the implementation of more technologically advanced water management techniques (AGA Ghana Fact Sheet, 2011:4). AngloGold claims to have made extensive efforts to improve its CSR performance in Ghana particularly regarding land and water use, environmental protection and community investment. In 2011, the company commissioned an Ã¢â¬Å"independentÃ¢â¬ sustainability review panel to assess its performance in Ghana.The panel reported, in part, that Ã¢â¬Å"success at Obuasi requires that the company address Obuasi systematically in its planning, its engagement and communications, its investments, its governance and its development of capabilitiesÃ¢â¬ (AGA Sustainability Report 2011: 23). The challenges faced by the company in CSR performance in Ghana were highlighted in 2011 when the company was given the dishonor of receiving the Public Eye Award for 2011 for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"irresponsible corporate behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Public Eye Awards, 2011).The Public Eye Awards are run by Berne Foundation and Greenpeace to coincide with the annual World Economic Forum at Davos and call attention to CSR issues by naming and shaming multinationals seen to be culpable in environmental and social issues. The citation for the Ã¢â¬ËawardÃ¢â¬â¢ claimed that: The South African mining company AngloGold Ashanti contaminates land and people with its gold mining in Ghana. To extract 30 kg (66 lb) of gold, 6,000 tons of rock are mined every day, then ground up and mixed with cyanide in tanks.The highly-toxic mining waste is kept in large storage ponds that contaminate rivers and wells, as well as all those who (must) drink from them. Where there was once cultivated land, now the ground is contaminated and can no longer be farmed. In addition, in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s own guard houses, several suspects were tortured, and dogs were set on people; there have been fatalities as a result. Although the ecological and social problems in the mines Ã¢â¬â some mines are up to 100 years old Ã¢â¬â have been documented by authorities, NGOs and the company itself Ã¢â¬â and even AngloGold Ashanti committed itself in 2004 to improveAngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 15 the situation Ã¢â¬â things have in fact worsened since then. No wonder AngloGold Ashanti received the worst possible rating for social and environmental protection from the Ghanaian Environmental Protection Agency in a recent industry comparison. AngloGold has responded by claiming that its Public Eye award was Ã¢â¬Å"undeservedÃ¢â¬ and that its environmental and human rights record in Ghana should be seen in the context of the over 100 years of mining in Ghana usin g methods which are not acceptable by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards.The company claims that it has invested heavily to improve the infrastructure and processes at its Ghana mines and that resolving all legacy issues would require more time (www. ghanachamberofmines. org/site/news/details. php? id=33). The company says it has worked closely with GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to remedy environmental concerns, but the EPAÃ¢â¬â¢s AKOBEN Programme (http://www. epaghanaakoben. org/) in 2010 gave AngloGold AKOBENÃ¢â¬â¢s lowest overall rating of Ã¢â¬Å"RedÃ¢â¬ , indicating poor performance in environmental management.AKOBEN is an initiative of the Ghana EPA to monitor, evaluate and disclose environmental and social performance. The AKOBEN rating appears to buttress a 2011 report by GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s Centre for Environmental Impact Assessment (CEIA) which alleged that discharge from AngloGold operations in Obuasi and Tarkwa had polluted some 262 streams with resulting hi gh incidence of keratosis, other skin diseases and type II diabetes (http://environmentalwatchman. blogspot. com/2011/08/mining-activitiesÃ¢â¬ ¦ ). This report has not been independently confirmed.The negative impact of AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s gold mining on the environment, agricultural productivity and the livelihoods of Ghanaian communities has been extensively researched by Aragon and Rud who have reported that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦we find that mining has reduced agricultural productivity by almost 40%. This result is driven by polluting mines, not by input availabilityÃ¢â¬ ¦ we find that the mining activity is associated with an increase in poverty, child AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 16 malnutrition and respiratory diseasesÃ¢â¬ ¦the actual fiscal contribution of ining would not have been enough to compensate affected populationsÃ¢â¬ (2012:1). These negative reports tend to give credence to a criticism of CSR reporting as being window dressing far rem oved from actual performance. Haigh and Jones argue that there are Ã¢â¬Å"inherent contradictions between the pursuit of economic growth and goals of ecological maintenance and social justiceÃ¢â¬ (2006:1) and that managers would not expend resources on CSR if they do not expect CSR to maximize Ã¢â¬Å"the gap between revenues and relevant costsÃ¢â¬ (2006:2).Haigh and Jones contend that companies have a Ã¢â¬Å"Business first (profit and market share) and Society second (other stakeholders in line after stockholders)Ã¢â¬ (2006:3) approach, suggesting that a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR performance is a reaction to Ã¢â¬Å"first mover CSR strategies of competitorsÃ¢â¬ out of fear of losing market position (2006:2). The Haigh and Jones argument does not detract from Woods who asserts that corporate social performance (CSP) is not Ã¢â¬Å"completely distinct from business performanceÃ¢â¬ (1991:693).In WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ model of CSP, a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance should be evaluated on the basis of the social responsibility principles motivating the company, the extent to which that company uses CSP processes and the societal impact of that companyÃ¢â¬â¢s programs and activities (1991:693). AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR reporting appears to be fairly consistent with the Woods CSP model. The company seeks to secure its license to operate and establish its legitimacy through its stated compliance with legal, economic and regulatory requirements.This is the expected behavior of a firm in line with the institutional principle of WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ model (1991:695). WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ organizational principle of public responsibility is expressed in AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance of responsibility for the negative outcomes of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, as indicated, for AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 17 example, in AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s actions to clean up and prevent continued pollution of waterways in Ghana.WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ managerial discretion principle is articulated in the statements of AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO and Chairman reaffirming the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to be a good corporate citizen as expressed in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s philanthropic contributions to communities and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s community investments in feeder road repairs, health programs, youth apprenticeship programs, sustainable alternative livelihoods programs and other activities intended to improve the communitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ quality of life, above and beyond the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s legal obligations.The second facet of WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ CSP model concerns a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of processes of corporate social responsiveness. Woods says that Ã¢â¬Å"responsiveness complements but does not replace responsibilityÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"responsiveness provides an action counterpoint to the principled reflection of social responsibilityÃ¢â¬ (1991:703). AngloGold appears to fulfill the three conditions Woods identifies as being characteristic of a socially responsi ve firm: 1) The company monitors and assesses environmental conditions 2) it actively manages its stakeholders and 3) manages the resultant stakeholder issues.AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s Sustainability Report 2011 is a testament to the depth of environmental scanning engaged in by the company in determining the risks and opportunities impacting the company. An extensive appraisal was done earlier in this paper of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management of its stakeholders and stakeholder issues. It can safely be concluded, based on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reporting, that AngloGold is a socially responsive firm.The third facet of WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ model involves the observable impacts of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s programs and policies (1991:708). The impacts of AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR activities may be evaluated through the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reporting against social indicators such as that contained in the GRI AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 18 Guidelines mentioned above and can be obs erved in the positive results seen in AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s programs such as its highly commended malaria control activities in Ghana.Outcomes can also be observed, according to Woods, in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s institutionalization of policies to address stakeholder issues. CONCLUSION It is an easy conclusion to reach that AngloGold Ashanti is very adept, from the evidence of its CSR reporting, at hitting all the right notes in its effort to be seen as a socially responsible company. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s instrumental motivation in strong alignment with a negative duty motivation, far outweighs other factors as the driver of AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR strategy and activities.The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s diverse stakeholders Ã¢â¬â from shareholders in London and Johannesburg, and the SEC in New York, to the villagers of Iduapriem and Obuasi in Ghana and all others in between Ã¢â¬â present a multitude of issues that the company tries to address, using the GRI Guidelines and other international st andards, in its Sustainability Report 2011. The universal principles expressed in the Ghana Business Code are those the company professes to be the bedrock of its corporate value system, and against which the company reports its performance.AngloGoldÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR performance in Ghana is far from adequate, but the company is transparent in publicly reporting these shortcomings. When all is said and done, however, AngloGold is a global company undertaking socially responsible activities with a strategic eye to profits for its shareholders. AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 19 REFERENCES AngloGold Ashanti. 2011a. Sustainable Gold. www. aga-reports. com/11/sustainabilityreport/home, first accessed August 2012. 5 -10 AngloGold Ashanti. 2011b. Sustainable Gold. www. aga-reports. om/11/sustainabilityreport/home, first accessed August 2012. 22 AngloGold Ashanti. 2011c. Sustainable Gold. www. aga-reports. com/11/sustainabilityreport/home, first accessed August 20 12. 12 AngloGold Ashanti. 2011d. Sustainable Gold. www. aga-reports. com/11/sustainabilityreport/home, first accessed August 2012. 13 AngloGold Ashanti. 2011e. Sustainable Gold. www. aga-reports. com/11/sustainabilityreport/home, first accessed August 2012. 6-7 AngloGold Ashanti. 2011f. 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Global Compact. http://www. unglobalcompact. org/, first accessed September 2012 AngloGold Ashanti: Analysis of CSR Strategy & Performance Page 22 APPENDIX AngloGold Mission To create value for our shareholders, our employees and our business and social partners through safely and responsibly exploring, mining and marketing our products. Our primary focus is gold and we will pursue value creating opportunities in other minerals where we can leverage our existing assets, skills and experience to enhance the delivery of value. AngloGold Values
Friday, January 10, 2020
The Unusual Mystery Into Informational Essay Topics The Do's and Don'ts of Informational Essay Topics How folks become famous. You may also incorporate the views of experts on the subject. You have picked a job that 100% relies on the proper functioning of the matter between your ears. Explain the reason it is important to aid individuals who are less fortunate than us. If you want to put up such essays for everybody to read, make sure your words do not lead anyone to follow along with the incorrect path of treatment, medication or exercise. In case the writer presents you with something very similar to what is shown here, then you're in good hands! On the flip side, inventing informative essay ideas will hardly be an issue. There are lots of writing online forums that may come in handy as soon as you are looking for a topic. The Supreme Strategy to Informational Essay Topics Games are a significant part of contemporary civilization as it has been for generations before. Informational Writing Prompts to assist Students Learn About the World Around Us A journal isn't merely a safe location for a student to reflect on her or his ideas and feelingsit may also be a highly effective tool that permits the student to find out more about what's going on in the world around us. You have to read enough small business ideas from successful businessmen. Some hobbies are only diversions. Life After Informational Essay Topics The approach is the exact same. Explain why it's important to eat healthful foods. Once you get your topic, approach identified and conducted your initial research a good way to start is to list out all your important findings and supporting data. Talk about some ways which you could create your own diet healthier. Check whether the remainder of the arguments relate to it. More than just rating yourself, you may wish to provide a qualitative statement. By this time, you likely have a couple thoughts about how you want to deliver your thesis statement. As soon as you decided on this issue, it's the right time to sit down and spend a few hours or more based on the assignment's volume on the informative essay outline. The End of Informational Essay Topics For students, writing such a document is among the several assignments that they have to do. It's also beneficial to comprehend how to deliver data in a clean and concise method. The process isn't easy if you don't have enough info. Any format is created of 2 major pieces. Allow the professional academic writers help to your informative paper! It isn't enough to describe a particular topic a student should serve as an authority in the chosen field by offering specific examples and educating the audience on the given problem. Students may write informational essays numerous ways. There are a lot of expository essay topics to choose from. Because of the right collection of presentation style and a comprehensive grasp of the goals you will need to attain in your essay, there are lots of categories essay themes might be broken into. To begin with, you must comprehend what distinguishes informative essays from some other kinds of academic papers. If you would like to learn to compose an informative essay, it is necessary to talk about the entire process step-by-step to allow it to be clear. A great writer will have the ability to earn any topic interesting, and one which knows and understands how to construct the essay as effectively as possible will have the ability to find great grades, regardless of what the topic is. You want to produce your reader curious about the topic and hopefully make him want to find out more. A thesis has to be arguable like in an argumentative or persuasive essay to create the readers wish to debate. Just keep in mind that while you're supposed to present the topic objectively, you still ought to use a sophisticated style. Formulate a very clear title, indicating what's going to be discussed. An intriguing title supports the proper selection of topic. Reading your essay out loud can help you notice areas wherever your writing could be unclear or awkwardly worded. Test essay questions will be contingent on the topic, needless to say. Writing an informative essay is just one of many assignments that you have to tackle. Writing an outline isn't obligatory.